Painful menstruation

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Many women experience a painful situation during their menstrual period. We all know some pain, discomfort, and abdominal cramping are expected during menstruation. If the woman continuously faces excessive pain without pelvic pathologies,  this phenomenon is called primary dysmenorrhea.

Primary dysmenorrhea is characterised by a pain that develops typically after the first menstruation of young women or beginning or shortly after the menstruation and continues for 48 to 72 hours. Psychological factors like anxiety and stressful situations may also contribute to dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea believes to be caused by an excess of prostaglandins, which induces painful uterine contractions and arteriolar vasospasm.

Some women suffer from pelvic pathological conditions such as tumours, endometriosis and inflammatory diseases. They also face pain several days before menstruation, during ovulation, and occasionally during intercourse. This type is called Secondary dysmenorrhea.

The patient persuades that menstruation is a normal reproductive system process in primary dysmenorrhea. An overproduction of prostaglandins causes dysmenorrhea, which induces painful uterine contractions and arteriolar vasospasm. Rule out potential anomalies, and a comprehensive pelvic examination will identify the exact causes. Also, when a thorough explanation dispels anxiety and concern about the source of cramps, the discomfort might alleviate. According to the physician’s prescription, some drugs, such as prostaglandin antagonists, include NSAIDs, Asprin, mild prostaglandin inhibitors, Mefenamic acid, Naproxen, and COX-2 inhibitors, can be used to relieve pain.

Continuous low-level local heat has recently been equally beneficial as medicine in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Heat may prevent the activity of hormones stimulating the uterus to contract, though the mechanism is unknown. Heat acts as a vasodilator, increasing blood flow and reducing constriction and muscle contraction. Combining heat therapy with medication has been proven to be effective. The patient should maintain her everyday activities and, if appropriate, increase her physical activity, as this appears to help some women feel better to avoid discomfort. Also, analgesics should take before cramps begin.

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